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August 7, 2014

The A to Z of Disaster Management (Part 1: A-E)

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When I was still working as the Communications Officer for the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre), I developed the glossary of disaster management terms - especially those related to disaster management in ASEAN - for the Centre's website and Annual Report. I found that the collections of disaster management-related terms were still scattered in different sources, as different organizations tend to have their own list of glossary - which are exclusively related to their own scope of work or organization structure. Hence I want to develop a cross-boundary collection of disaster management terms and their definitions. Here in this glossary I also include the links to relevant official websites, with a hope that readers can learn more about each terminology. 

This post is the first part of my project, covering disaster management terms which begin with A, B, C, D, and E. If you use Windows OS, simply click on Ctrl+F and type the terms that you are looking for. If you are a Mac OS user, you may use Command+F and type the terms to search for the terms on this page. Please feel free to contact me at contact@asriwijayanti.com if you have more terminology and definition to be included, so that this list can grow into more comprehensive list.

[ A ]

List of disaster management terms begin with 'A'
Click on each term to read the descriptions

AADMER

The ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) is a proactive regional framework for cooperation, coordination, technical assistance, and resource mobilisation in all aspects of disaster management. It also affirms ASEAN’s commitment to the Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA) and is the first legally-binding HFA-related instrument in the world.

The Objective of AADMER is "to provide effective mechanisms to achieve substantial reduction of disaster losses in lives and in the social, economic, and environmental assets of the ASEAN Member States , and to jointly respond to disaster emergencies through concerted national efforts and intensified regional and international cooperation." (AADMER, Article 2)

Download AADMER document

AADMER Work Programme

The Work Programme seeks to translate AADMER’s spirit and intent into concrete actions and initiatives to be implemented from 2010 to 2015 in order to attain the ASEAN vision of disaster resilient nations and safe communities by 2015. Adopted by the 15th Meeting of the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) as a rolling plan, many strategic priorities kicked start in Phase 1 (2010-2012). Phase 1 also included ongoing activities intitiated in the previous cycle (2004-2010) as well as those that are already in the pipeline. Phase 2 (2013-2015) activities sustain the momentum and further strengthen disaster management capacities, mechanisms, and systems that have been developed and/or established.

Download AADMER Work Programme 2010 - 2015

Acceptable Risk

According to the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), acceptable risk is the level of potential losses that a society or community considers acceptable given existing social, economic, political, cultural, technical and environmental conditions. 

Source: 
UNISDR Terminology
PreventionWeb

ACDM

The ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) was established in early 2003 following the decision of the ASEAN Standing Committee (ASC).

Previously the institutional mechanism in the form of experts group has existed since the ‘70s but was only strengthened towards 2003 with the elevation of the experts group into a full-fledged committee. The ACDM met for the first time in December 2003.

Read more about the ACDM on the ASEAN Secretariat's website.

ACE Programme

The AHA Centre Executive Programme (ACE Programme) is a comprehensive training program on disaster management and leadership developed by the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre) for selected disaster management officers from ASEAN Member States' National Disaster Management Offices. The first batch of ACE Programme commenced on 15 January 2014 and concluded on 27 June 2014. The second batch of the Programme is scheduled to commence in 2015.

Read the Press Release on the Commencement of ACE Programme
Read the Press Release on the Conclusion of ACE Programme's First Batch  

Adaptation

According to the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), adaptation refers to the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. 

Comment: This definition addresses the concerns of climate change and is sourced from the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The broader concept of adaptation also applies to non-climatic factors such as soil erosion or surface subsidence. Adaptation can occur in autonomous fashion, for example through market changes, or as a result of intentional adaptation policies and plans. Many disaster risk reduction measures can directly contribute to better adaptation.

Source: 
UNISDR Terminology
PreventionWeb

ADInet

The ASEAN Disaster Information Network (ADInet), developed by the AHA Centre in 2012, is a real-time public web page where disasters in ASEAN Region are recorded and displayed. ADInet serves as the main source for the AHA Centre to produce the weekly and monthly updates on disaster situation in ASEAN Region. Public can contribute in sharing disaster information by filling an online form in ADInet website. 

Visit ADInet 

ADPC

Established in 1986, the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) is as an independent non-governmental organization. ADPC deploys disaster risk management (DRM) information and systems to reduce local, national and regional risk across Asia-Pacific. Its portfolio focuses on DRM capacity building, improving DRM for cities and climate change, mainstreaming DRM into national and local development, improving DRM systems and undertaking disaster risk assessments. 

ADPC works in a number of Asian countries including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam. With headquarters located in Bangkok, Thailand, ADPC has country offices in Bangladesh, Lao PDR and Myanmar.  

To achieve its aims in disaster risk reduction, ADPC works closely with local, national and regional governments, governmental and non-governmental organizations, donors and development partners.   

More information on ADPC can be found at ADPC's official website.

ADRC

The Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) was established in Kobe, Hyogo prefecture, in 1998, with mission to enhance disaster resilience of the member countries, to build safe communities, and to create a society where sustainable development is possible. The Center works to build disaster resilient communities and to establish networks among countries through many programs including personnel exchanges in this field.

More information on ADRC can be found at ADRC official website.

ADTRAIN

The ASEAN Disaster Management Training Institutes Network (ADTRAIN)  is envisioned to be the Centre of Excellence in training and knowledge management for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response in the ASEAN region. As a hub of scientific and technical knowledge and resources on disasters, it shall facilitate capacity-building programmes and multi-level sharing among the Disaster Management Training Institutes (DMTIs) and with other stakeholders within and outside the region.

Read more about ADTRAIN

AHA Centre

The ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management - popularly referred to as the AHA Centre - is an inter-governmental organization established by the ASEAN Member States (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam) to facilitate cooperation and coordination within ASEAN and with the United Nations and other international organisations, for disaster management and emergency response in the region. (AADMER, Article 20). The Terms of Reference of the AHA Centre is outlined at the Annex of AADMER.

AHA Centre was established during the 19th ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia, on 17 November 2011 through the signing of the "Agreement on the Establishment of the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre)" by the Foreign Ministers of ASEAN Member States, witnessed by the ASEAN Heads of States. The Centre is located in Jakarta, Indonesia.

More information on AHA Centre and its activities can be found at the AHA Centre official website.    

AIFDR

The Australia–Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR) is a joint Australia-Indonesia initiative. The facility uses science and research to better identify areas most at risk of natural disaster. The facility is helping to reduce the impact of these disasters by giving people information about how to build safer houses and public buildings. It is helping shape training and planning for disaster managers across the region through partnerships with APEC, ASEAN and the United Nations. The facility is also providing support to Indonesia’s stand-by Disaster Rapid Response and Assistance Force to deploy into disaster areas within hours of a disaster.

More information on AIFDR and its activities can be found at AIFDR official website.

AADMER Partnership Group (APG)

The AADMER Partnership Group (APG) is a consortium of seven civil society organisations formed to assist in the implementation of AADMER. The members of the consortium are: ChildFund International, HelpAge International, Mercy Malaysia, Oxfam, Plan International, Save the Children International, and World Vision International. APG is in partnership with the ASEAN towards a “people-centred implementation of AADMER” with focus on promoting visibility and participation of vulnerable groups.

APG’s programme started in 2009 with the drafting of the AADMER Work Programme, the implementation strategy for AADMER. Since then, APG has been collaborating with the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) and its Working Groups, the ASEAN Secretariat and the ASEAN Humanitarian Assistance (AHA) Centre as well as ASEAN Member States in the popularisation and implementation of AADMER.

APG currently operates in specific ASEAN Member States, namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, and Viet Nam, as well as in Thailand as a regional hub.

More information on APG can be found at APG official website

ARDEX

ASEAN Regional Disaster Emergency Simulation Exercise (ARDEX) is the regional disaster management exercise intended for ASEAN Member States to practice, evaluate and review the ASEAN Standard Operating Procedures for Regional Standby Arrangements and Coordination of Joint Disaster Relief and Emergency Response Operations (SASOP) in facilitating an effective collaboration amongst ASEAN Member States and between ASEAN and relevant United Nations and other international organisations in responding to major disasters in the Region.

Participation in ARDEX include:
(1) Host country disaster response agencies;
(2) ASEAN Member States disaster response agencies; and
(3) invited teams and observers from the UN and other international organizations.

ARDEX exercises comprise the following elements:
(a) Pre-Exercise: exercise scenario, concept paper, exercise referees, exercise control checklist, conduct of Exercise Planning Team (EPT) Meetings;
(b) Actual Exercise: coordination (offer and request of assistance, interoperability of response mechanisms)
(c) Post-Exercise: de-briefing, review performance, improvements of SASOP.


The first ARDEX was conducted in 2005 (code-named ARDEX-05) in Malaysia, ARDEX-06 was conducted in Cambodia, ARDEX-07 was conducted in Singapore, and ARDEX-08 was conducted in Thailand. ARDEX-09 was supposed to be conducted in the Philippines but it was cancelled due to disaster caused by Typhoon Ketsana. ARDEX-10 was supposed to be conducted in Indonesia, but it was cancelled due to Mount Merapi eruption. Finally, ARDEX was organized again in 2013 (code-named ARDEX-13) in Viet Nam. 

More information on ARDEX can be found at:
ARDEX official website 
Press Release on ARDEX-13 

ARF-DiREX

The ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise (ARF-DiREX) is a collaboration effort among ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)'s civilian and military authorities to exercise joint relief mechanisms for large-scale disasters. The exercise is "by far the most inclusive simulation exercise in the Asia Pacific region" (Adelina Kamal, ASEAN Secretariat). ARF DIREX involves multiple agencies from the ARF members, the civilian and military actors and the international humanitarian players. 

Coordination issues and complexity of the international humanitarian architecture as exercised in ARF DiREx represent the actual situation when a disaster occurs in the region. Activities in AFR-DiREX consist of Table Top Exercise (TTX), Field Training Exercise (FTX), and After Action Review (AAR).

The 1st ARF DiREX was conducted in Luzon, the Philippines in 2009, the 2nd ARF-DiREX was organized in Manado, Indonesia in 2011, and the 3rd ARF DiREX was conducted in Cha-am, Phetchaburi, Thailand in 2013. 

Download ARF-DiREX 2013 Co-Chairs Summary Report

ASEAN

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.

In terms of disaster management, ASEAN Member States have agreed on, and ratified the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER). 

Visit ASEAN Secretariat's official website for more information on ASEAN.

[ B ]

List of disaster management terms begin with 'B'.

BCP

Business Continuity Plan (BCP) is proactive planning process that ensures critical services or products are delivered during a disruption (including disaster).

A Business Continuity Plan includes:

> Plans, measures and arrangements to ensure the continuous delivery of critical services and products, which permits the organization to recover its facility, data and assets.
> Identification of necessary resources to support business continuity, including personnel, information, equipment, financial allocations, legal counsel, infrastructure protection and accommodations.

Since 2013 the AHA Centre and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have been cooperating in developing the area BCP for business/industrial areas in ASEAN countries. 

Read more about BCP concept here.
Read more about ASEAN - Japan cooperation on Area BCP here.

B-Fast

Belgian First Aid and Support Team (B-FAST) was established in 2000 by 
the Belgian Council of Ministers. B-FAST is a cross-departmental rapid reaction unit  which can be deployed in the event of disasters and emergency situations affecting the local population, where local authorities ask for emergency aid from Belgium and the international community.

B-FAST operation consists of short-term direct or indirect emergency aid abroad. For such aid, B-FAST can call on posted workers provided by bodies participating in B-FAST, such as the Ministry of Defence, Home Affairs, Health and Foreign Affairs.

Find more information on B-Fast here.

Biological hazard

Biological hazard is process or phenomenon of organic origin or conveyed by biological vectors, including exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms, toxins and bioactive substances that may cause loss of life, injury, illness or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. 

Examples of biological hazards include outbreaks of epidemic diseases, plant or animal contagion, insect or other animal plagues and infestations.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

BNPB

Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) is the National Disaster Management Agency of Indonesia.  Based on the mandate from Law No. 27/2004 on Disaster Management in Indonesia, BNPB was established in 2008 to replace the National Disaster Management Coordinating Board (Badan Koordinasi Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana or Bakornas PB). 

Find more information on BNPB at BNPB official website.

Building code

Building code is a set of ordinances or regulations and associated standards intended to control aspects of the design, construction, materials, alteration and occupancy of structures that are necessary to ensure human safety and welfare, including resistance to collapse and damage. 

Building codes can include both technical and functional standards. They should incorporate the lessons of international experience and should be tailored to national and local circumstances. A systematic regime of enforcement is a critical supporting requirement for effective implementation of building codes.

Source:
UNISDR

[ C ]

List of disaster management terms begin with 'C'

Capacity

Capacity is the combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources available within a community, society or organization that can be used to achieve agreed goals. 

Capacity may include infrastructure and physical means, institutions, societal coping abilities, as well as human knowledge, skills and collective attributes such as social relationships, leadership and management. Capacity also may be described as capability. Capacity assessment is a term for the process by which the capacity of a group is reviewed against desired goals, and the capacity gaps are identified for further action.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Capacity development

Capacity development is the process by which people, organizations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capacities over time to achieve social and economic goals, including through improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions. 

Comment: Capacity development is a concept that extends the term of capacity building to encompass all aspects of creating and sustaining capacity growth over time. It involves learning and various types of training, but also continuous efforts to develop institutions, political awareness, financial resources, technology systems, and the wider social and cultural enabling environment.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

CCSFC

The Central Committee of Storm and Flood Control (CCSFC) is the the National Disaster Management Agency of Viet Nam.

Find more information on CCSFC at:
PreventionWeb  
CCSFC's official website

Climate change

(a) The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate change as: “a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use”. 
(b) The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines climate change as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”. 

For disaster risk reduction purposes, either of these definitions may be suitable, depending on the particular context. The UNFCCC definition is the more restricted one as it excludes climate changes attributable to natural causes. The IPCC definition can be paraphrased for popular communications as “A change in the climate that persists for decades or longer, arising from either natural causes or human activity.”

Source:
PreventionWeb
UNISDR

CONOPS

The Concept of Operations (CONOPS) is a document that clearly and concisely expresses what an emergency operations center intends to accomplish and how it will be done using available resources. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation, by providing information relating to the needs and expectations of the missions on the proposed asset or system. It serves as a valuable tools to plan and manage an disaster emergency response operations.

Contingency planning

Contingency planning is a management process that analyses specific potential events or emerging situations that might threaten society or the environment and establishes arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate responses to such events and situations. 

Contingency planning results in organized and coordinated courses of action with clearly-identified institutional roles and resources, information processes, and operational arrangements for specific actors at times of need. Based on scenarios of possible emergency conditions or disaster events, it allows key actors to envision, anticipate and solve problems that can arise during crises. Contingency planning is an important part of overall preparedness. Contingency plans need to be regularly updated and exercised.

Source:
PreventionWeb
UNISDR

COP (in ASEAN disaster management context)

In the context of ASEAN disaster management system, the Conference of Parties (COP) is a body which consists of Ministers or Secretaries of the government bodies in charge of disaster management and risk reduction, which is responsible for reviewing and evaluating the overall implementation of the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER). (Article 21 of AADMER)

To understand more about ASEAN disaster management system, you may read this article in the Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN) on Working with ASEAN on Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management

Meanwhile, an example of COP's statement on AADMER implementation can be examined at COP Chairman's Statement on the First COP Meeting (2012).

Coping capacity

Coping capacity is the ability of people, organizations and systems, using available skills and resources, to face and manage adverse conditions, emergencies or disasters. 

The capacity to cope requires continuing awareness, resources and good management, both in normal times as well as during crises or adverse conditions. Coping capacities contribute to the reduction of disaster risks.

Source:
PreventionWeb
UNISDR

Corrective disaster risk management

Corrective disaster risk management is management activities that address and seek to correct or reduce disaster risks which are already present. 

This concept aims to distinguish between the risks that are already present, and which need to be managed and reduced now, and the prospective risks that may develop in future if risk reduction policies are not put in place.

Source:
PreventionWeb
UNISDR

Critical facilities

Critical facilities are the primary physical structures, technical facilities and systems which are socially, economically or operationally essential to the functioning of a society or community, both in routine circumstances and in the extreme circumstances of an emergency. 

Critical facilities are elements of the infrastructure that support essential services in a society. They include such things as transport systems, air and sea ports, electricity, water and communications systems, hospitals and health clinics, and centers for fire, police and public administration services.

Source:
PreventionWeb
UNISDR

[D]

List of disaster management terms begin with 'D'

DDPM

Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM) is Thailand's disaster management agency. It was established on the 3rd of October 2002 as an agency under Ministry of Interior (MOI) to handle disaster management responsibilities. 

More information on DDPM and its duties can be found here.

DELSA

Disaster Emergency Logistics System for ASEAN (DELSA) Project aims to develop a disaster emergency logistics system for ASEAN through the establishment of a regional stockpile of relief items and pre-arrangements with potential suppliers and transporters. It also aims to develop ASEAN Member States' capacity in disaster management and logistics operations through various training programs. 

DELSA was launched on 7 December 2014, and managed by the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre). The Project is established with the support from the Government of Japan through the Japan-ASEAN Intergration Fund (JAIF).

DELSA's warehouse - where ASEAN's emergency logistics relief items are stored - is located in Subang, Malaysia, co-managed by the United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot (UNHRD) of the World Food Programme (UNWFP). The relief goods can quickly be mobilized as soon as the AHA Centre decides to respond to a disaster emergency in the Region. 

Additional information:
Press Release on the Launching of DELSA

Disaster

According to UNISDR, disaster is serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. 

Disasters are often described as a result of the combination of: the exposure to a hazard; the conditions of vulnerability that are present; and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce or cope with the potential negative consequences. Disaster impacts may include loss of life, injury, disease and other negative effects on human physical, mental and social well-being, together with damage to property, destruction of assets, loss of services, social and economic disruption and environmental degradation.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

DisasterAWARE

DisasterAWARE (All-hazard Warning, Analysis, and Risk Evaluation) is an integrated hazard monitoring platform developed by the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) providing situational awareness, decision support, and information exchange capabilities to disaster-management decision makers around the world. DisasterAWARE is made available through a freely accessible public version, a password-protected version for those with disaster management or humanitarian assistance responsibilities, and various custom versions.

DisasterAWARE continually monitors information feeds from reliable meteorological and geological agencies across the world, ensuring accurate, real-time reporting of hazard events. Decision makers receive early warning alerts delivered to their email or mobile devices based on up-to-the-minute and reliable notification services. When available, hazard data are combined with modeling results, and put into context in an easy-to-use, geospatial information environment.

Click here for more information on DisasterAWARE.

Disaster risk

UNISDR defines disaster risk as the potential disaster losses, in lives, health status, livelihoods, assets and services, which could occur to a particular community or a society over some specified future time period. 

The definition of disaster risk reflects the concept of disasters as the outcome of continuously present conditions of risk. Disaster risk comprises different types of potential losses which are often difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, with knowledge of the prevailing hazards and the patterns of population and socio-economic development, disaster risks can be assessed and mapped, in broad terms at least.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Disaster risk management

According to UNISDR, disaster risk management is the systematic process of using administrative directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster. 

The term of "disaster risk management" is an extension of the more general term “risk management” to address the specific issue of disaster risks. Disaster risk management aims to avoid, lessen or transfer the adverse effects of hazards through activities and measures for prevention, mitigation and preparedness.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Disaster risk reduction (DRR)

UNISDR defines disaster risk reduction (DRR) as the "concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events". 

A comprehensive approach to reduce disaster risks is set out in the United Nations-endorsed Hyogo Framework for Action, adopted in 2005, whose expected outcome is “the substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries.” The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) system provides a vehicle for cooperation among Governments, organisations and civil society actors to assist in the implementation of the Framework. Note that while the term “disaster reduction” is sometimes used, the term “disaster risk reduction” provides a better recognition of the ongoing nature of disaster risks and the ongoing potential to reduce these risks.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Disaster risk reduction plan

According to UNISDR, disaster risk reduction plan is document prepared by an authority, sector, organization or enterprise that sets out goals and specific objectives for reducing disaster risks together with related actions to accomplish these objectives. 

Disaster risk reduction plans should be guided by the Hyogo Framework and considered and coordinated within relevant development plans, resource allocations and programme activities. National level plans needs to be specific to each level of administrative responsibility and adapted to the different social and geographical circumstances that are present. The time frame and responsibilities for implementation and the sources of funding should be specified in the plan. Linkages to climate change adaptation plans should be made where possible.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

DMHA

The Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (DMHA) division is a division in ASEAN Secretariat which promotes ASEAN cooperation in the area of disaster management and humanitarian assistance among the ten ASEAN countries as well as with ASEAN's partners, various sectors and stakeholders, at the policy and strategic level.

DMRS

The Disaster Monitoring and Response System (DMRS) is a disaster monitoring software which provides all-hazards warning, analysis and risk evaluation developed by the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) and the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre) based on the DisasterAWARE Platform. DMRS consolidates hazard data from international and regional sources in a single near real-time system, providing a “snapshot” of events and possible impacts of natural hazards. 

More information on DMRS can be found here.

[E]

Disaster management terms begin with 'E'

Early warning system

Early warning system is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. 

This definition encompasses the range of factors necessary to achieve effective responses to warnings. A people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: knowledge of the risks; monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression “end-to-end warning system” is also used to emphasize that warning systems need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Ecosystem services

UNISDR defines ecosystem services as the benefits that people and communities obtain from ecosystems. 

This definition is drawn from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The benefits that ecosystems can provide include (1) “regulating services” such as regulation of floods, drought, land degradation and disease, along with (2) “provisioning services” such as food and water, (3) “supporting services” such as soil formation and nutrient cycling, and (3) “cultural services” such as recreational, spiritual, religious and other non-material benefits. Integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use provide the basis for maintaining ecosystem services, including those that contribute to reduced disaster risks.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

El Nino Southern Oscillation

El Nino Southern Oscillation is a complex interaction of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the global atmosphere that results in irregularly occurring episodes of changed ocean and weather patterns in many parts of the world, often with significant impacts over many months, such as altered marine habitats, rainfall changes, floods, droughts, and changes in storm patterns. 

The El Niño part of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon refers to the well-above-average ocean temperatures that occur along the coasts of Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and across the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, while La Niña part refers to the opposite circumstances when well-below-average ocean temperatures occur. The Southern Oscillation refers to the accompanying changes in the global air pressure patterns that are associated with the changed weather patterns experienced in different parts of the world.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Emergency management

UNISDR defines emergency management as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for addressing all aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and initial recovery steps. 

A crisis or emergency is a threatening condition that requires urgent action. Effective emergency action can avoid the escalation of an event into a disaster. Emergency management involves plans and institutional arrangements to engage and guide the efforts of government, non-government, voluntary and private agencies in comprehensive and coordinated ways to respond to the entire spectrum of emergency needs. The expression “disaster management” is sometimes used instead of emergency management.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Emergency services

Emergency services are the set of specialized agencies that have specific responsibilities and objectives in serving and protecting people and property in emergency situations. 

Emergency services include agencies such as civil protection authorities, police, fire, ambulance, paramedic and emergency medicine services, Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, and specialized emergency units of electricity, transportation, communications and other related services organizations.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Environmental degradation

UNISDR defines environmental degradation as "the reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives and needs". 

Degradation of the environment can alter the frequency and intensity of natural hazards and increase the vulnerability of communities. The types of human-induced degradation are varied and include land misuse, soil erosion and loss, desertification, wildland fires, loss of biodiversity, deforestation, mangrove destruction, land, water and air pollution, climate change, sea level rise and ozone depletion.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Environmental impact assessment

Process by which the environmental consequences of a proposed project or programme are evaluated, undertaken as an integral part of planning and decision-making processes with a view to limiting or reducing the adverse impacts of the project or programme. 

Environmental impact assessment is a policy tool that provides evidence and analysis of environmental impacts of activities from conception to decision-making. It is utilized extensively in national programming and project approval processes and for international development assistance projects. Environmental impact assessments should include detailed risk assessments and provide alternatives, solutions or options to deal with identified problems.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

ERAT

The ASEAN Emergency Response and Assessment Team (ERAT) is a team of trained and certified disaster response professional from ASEAN Member States which can be deployed immediately after a disaster occurrence to conduct emergency rapid assessment and to provide logistical support to assist the government of disaster-affected countries in ASEAN region.

ERAT was established during ASEAN response to cyclone Nargis in Myanmar in 2008. Previously ERAT stood for Emergency Rapid Assessment Team, until in November 2013 - during the 23rd ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) meeting - it was agreed that the ERAT's scope of work should be expanded from emergency rapid assessment only into emergency response and assessment. 

ERCC

The European Union Emergency Response and Coordination Centre (ERCC), which operates within the European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO), was set up to support a coordinated and quicker response to disasters both inside and outside Europe using resources from 31 countries participating in the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism

The ERCC is a coordination hub facilitating a coherent European response during emergencies helping to cut unnecessary and expensive duplication of efforts.

It collects and analyses real-time information on disasters, monitors hazards, prepares plans for the deployment of experts, teams and equipment, and works with Member States to map available assets and coordinate the EU's disaster response efforts by matching offers of assistance to the needs of the disaster-stricken country. 

The ERCC also supports a wide range of prevention and preparedness activities, from awareness-raising to field exercises simulating emergency response. 

You may find more information on ERCC at:
The European Commission's website
ERCC Portal

Exposure

UNISDR defines exposure as "people, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses". 

Measures of exposure can include the number of people or types of assets in an area. These can be combined with the specific vulnerability of the exposed elements to any particular hazard to estimate the quantitative risks associated with that hazard in the area of interest.

Source:
UNISDR
PreventionWeb

Extensive Risk

The widespread risk associated with the exposure of dispersed populations to repeated or persistent hazard conditions of low or moderate intensity, often of a highly localized nature, which can lead to debilitating cumulative disaster impacts. 

Comment: Extensive risk is mainly a characteristic of rural areas and urban margins where communities are exposed to, and vulnerable to, recurring localised floods, landslides storms or drought. Extensive risk is often associated with poverty, urbanization and environmental degradation. 



[F - J]

I will post the list of disaster management terms begin with F to J on September 10th, 2014.

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